Shinzō Abe
Prime Minister of Japan

In addition to the financial effects, we see that blockchain has the potential to make various industries safer and more efficient. Certain local venture companies are utilizing the ‘sandbox system,’ and are striving to be the world’s first business model to enhance the liquidity of digital assets.

Status: Legal
  • Exchanges are regulated.
  • Businesses are required to be registered and meticulous in their record-keeping.
Donald Trump
President of the United States

I am not a fan of Bitcoin and other Cryptocurrencies, which are not money, and whose value is highly volatile and based on thin air. Unregulated Crypto Assets can facilitate unlawful behavior, including drug trade and other illegal activity....

Status: Not illegal, laws vary in different states
  • Not legal tender.
  • Exchanges are money transmitters, subject to each jurisdiction (FinCEN).
  • Considered as property and taxed accordingly (IRS).
  • Cryptocurrencies are securities (SEC).
  • Bitcoin is a commodity, cryptocurrency derivatives can be traded publicly (CFTC).
XI Jinping
President of China

A new generation of technology represented by artificial intelligence, quantum information, mobile communications, internet of things and blockchain is accelerating breakthrough applications.

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • ICOs are banned (since Sept. 2017).
  • Government investigating ways to regulate cryptocurrencies.
Vladimir Putin
President of Russia

Federal laws aimed at the development of the digital economy, including determining the procedure for conducting civil law transactions in electronic form, as well as regulating digital financial assets and attracting financial resources using digital technologies. Deadline — July 1, 2019.
July update: The decision has been postponed again

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Mining is an entrepreneurial activity and taxed accordingly.
  • Tokens deemed as property.
Cyril Ramaphosa
President of South Africa

To ensure that we effectively and with greater urgency harness technological change in pursuit of inclusive growth and social development,
I have appointed a Presidential Commission on the 4th Industrial Revolution.

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Residents free to hold, trade and transact.
  • Crypto earnings are subject to capital gains taxes.
  • Businesses are not obligated to accept digital currencies (Reserve Bank).
Jair Bolsonaro
President of Brazil

I do not know what bitcoin is.

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Central bank: Digital currency companies are not licensed or regulated.
  • Crypto is not a financial asset and can't be acquired by investment funds (SVM).
  • A key player in the cryptocurrency market in all of Latin America.
Arun Jaitley
Then-Finance Minister of India

The government does not consider cryptocurrencies as legal tender or coin and will take all measures to eliminate use of these cryptoassets in financing illegitimate activities, or as part of
the payment system.

Status: Illegal
  • Draft bill: 10-year jail term for cryptocurrency use.
  • Businesses can't get licenses.
  • Financial institutions are prohibited from dealing with digital currencies.
  • Acknowledges the value of distributed ledger technology.
Emmanuel Macron
President of France

Let’s do this in Europe, the vanguard of agricultural data by developing tools that will track every product from raw material production to packaging and processing.

Status: Not illegal
  • Describes cryptocurrency as “potentially catastrophic.”
  • Positive about blockchain technology.
  • Crypto gains are taxed.
Joseph Muscat
Prime Minister of Malta

We will now be showing people the added value of this [blockchain] technology through applying it to something which they will use in their daily lives. This shows how the digital transformation will affect their lives.

Status: In progress
  • Use and development of cryptocurrencies and blockchain are encouraged.
  • Legal framework for regulation is being developed.
  • Described as Blockchain Island.
Volodymyr Zelensky
President of Ukraine

You may say that I'm a naive dreamer, but we really want to build a country inside a smartphone, a government inside a smartphone. […] Innovations make all the processes transparent and efficient and deprive corrupt officials of their livelihoods. Would a spetsnaz [a special purpose officer] blackmail you to seize documents if these documents were digitalized? Would another raider change the owner’s name in cadastre records if it were a blockchain records?

Status: Not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Legal frameworks on cryptocurrencies and trading digital assets are being developed.
  • Users hope that cryptocurrency will tip the balance of power.
Edi Rama
President of Albania

As part of our effort to open up new markets and create new opportunities for well-paid jobs and qualified people […] we [have been] exploring the possibility of setting up a regulatory framework on cryptocurrency which is a shocking novelty nowadays and where the opportunity to be innovative and set up a center of gravity for innovative financial markets is open for every country despite their level of development.

Status: Not illegal
  • No laws guiding cryptocurrency operations.
  • Users warned about associated risks and urged to be “mature” with investment decisions.
  • Increased demand for cryptocurrency.
Alexander Lukashenko
President of Belarus

Wait, we’ll build a nuclear power plant and will have excess of electricity… I’ve left some room there. We’ll build farms and we’ll be mining these bitcoins and selling them. Moreover, they say when there is a bitcoin, there is no problem to sell it.

Status: Legal
  • Crypto activities are legal.
  • Income from mining and operations in crypto is not taxed until 2023
Allen Chastanet
Prime Minister of Saint Lucia

Cryptos have been around since 2008. We’re in 2018 now. We’re passed the teething stage on this thing.
It’s time for action!

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Involved in a pilot program testing the use of cryptocurrency.
Iván Duque
President of Columbia

We want companies to be constituted in order for Colombia to become an important player in the sector; sometimes tax policies of this country are designed to be an obstacle for them.

Status: Not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Financial institutions are warned not to invest, broker or manage cryptocurrency operations.
  • Users trade at their own risk.
Hubert Minnis
Prime Minister of the Bahamas

Companies that utilize blockchain technology as a basis for their new products and services, represent a genesis of a new wave of solutions that we believe will change the world as we know it. There is no reason why these new blockchain technology companies that have their eyes on global markets cannot have their base of operations here in The Bahamas.

Status: Legal
  • No specific regulations, laws vary according to how currencies are viewed.
  • Intends to promote blockchain as a sub-industry within information and communication technology.
  • The country is actively looking to develop its fintech and blockchain technology industry.
Benjamin Netanyahu
Prime Minister of Israel

[Asked by a reporter, ‘Will the banks disappear in the future?’]
The answer is yes. Will it happen tomorrow? Will it happen because of bitcoin? That is the question, but bitcoin is certainly pushing in that direction.

Status: Legal
  • Considered a financial asset.
  • Not currency.
  • Subject to tax.
Xavier Bettel
Prime Minister of Luxembourg

In order to work with
smart contracts, we need a blockchain, and also
an environment that you can trust.

Status: Unregulated, not illegal
  • Crypto financial services require permission from the Ministry of Finance.
  • Users warned of risks.
Alois Philipp
Prince of Liechtenstein

Digital tokens such as bitcoin were 'something to look into more into the future,' but admitted the principality does not currently have the “internal expertise to do that [invest] directly."

Status: Legal
  • Supportive of сryptocurrency and blockchain.
  • Government wants to use blockchain to improve administrative tasks.
  • Banks handle investments.
Kersti Kaljulaid
President of Estonia

The government is currently piloting a blockchain application related to traffic accident reporting. Once an accident is reported and registered online, the parties involved would be provided information on how the resolution of the case and the insurance outcome. With Blockchain the entire case could be handled in 30 minutes.

Status: Legal
  • Acknowledged as carrying value in digital form.
  • Not subject to tax.
Uhuru Kenyatta
President of Kenya

Indeed to this end, the Minister of ICT will set up a task force on blockchain and Internet of Things Technology, because as a country, we cannot let these things pass us by.

Status: Not illegal
  • Not legal tender nor regulated.
  • Authorities are discussing how to regulate cryptocurrencies.
  • Users warned of risks.
Scott Morrison
President of Australia

Distributed ledger technologies and Blockchain, working in the financial sector, that’s going to open up massive opportunities.

Status: Legal
  • Regulatory approaches have been thoroughly considered.
  • Digital currency exchange businesses have been brought under control via Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism legislation.
  • Profits taxed accordingly.
Joko Widodo
President of Indonesia

Every day we are filled with changes from the AI, Internet of Things, big data, virtual reality, cryptocurrency, bitcoin, all of them.

Status: Not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Users warned of “bubble-related” risks.
Emmerson Mnangagwa
President of Zimbabwe

It has always been clear that for our economy to truly take of, we need our own currency.

Status: Not illegal
  • Not legal tender.
  • Government attempts to assess the risks and potential of cryptocurrencies.
  • Financial institutions are not allowed to facilitate crypto transactions.
  • Locals use cryptocurrencies as a hedge to protect their wealth.
Mateusz Morawiecki
Prime Minister of Poland

We are going to regulate more.
We can [unintelligible] with some shadow-
banking activities, so Bitcoin and plus shadow-banking. We've experi-
enced a very big shadow-banking scandal a couple of years ago called Amber Gold and we don't want to have another one.

Status: Not illegal
  • Plans to either ban the use or regulate.
  • Users are warned against investing in cryptocurrencies.
  • Subject to a tax of either 18% or 32%.
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